Unit:-7 Environmental Health and Diseases

Environmental Health and Diseases

 A.  Very short question answer 

1.  Write a mode of transmission of communicable disease. 

Ans:- A mode of transmission of communicable disease is Droplet infection.

2.  What is droplet infection? 

Ans:- The infection bt drops of spit, sputum and moisture of infected person while coughing, sneezing and speaking is called droplet infection.

3.  What is the cause of amoebic dysentery? 

Ans:- The cause of amoebic dysentery is Entamoeba histolytica (amoeba).

4.  Which disease can be caused by tattoo making in the body? 

Ans:- Hepatitis C disease can be cause by tattoo making in the body.

5.  Write two major cancers prevailing in Nepal. 

Ans:- The two major cancers prevailing in Nepal are:

i)  Stomach Cancer

ii)  Breast Cancer

6.  State a sign of brain stroke. 

Ans:- A sign of brain stroke is Partial paralysis.

7.  What is cancer? 

Ans:- Cancer is an abnormal growth and expansion of cells at the specific organ of the body.

8.  Give an example of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 

Ans:- Asthma

9.  Write a mode of transmission of Cholera. 

Ans:- A mode of transmission of Cholera is Using of contaminated food and water.

 

B.  Short and long question answer 

1.  What is disease? What are the various types of diseases? 

Ans:- Disease is a sickness of body and mind causes by germs, internal disorder and injury. There are two types of diseases. They are communicable and non-communicable disease.

i)  Communicable Disease:- Those diseases which can transfer from one person to another are called communicable disease. Common cold, diarrhea, dysentery, diphtheria, hepatitis, AIDS, etc. Are some examples of communicable diseases.

ii)  Non-communicable: These diseases are not transferable from person to person. Cancer, Asthma, Goiter, Rickets, headache, etc. Are some examples of Non-communicable disease.

 

2.  What are the modes of transmission of communicable disease? List out. 

Ans:- There are various modes of transmission of communicable diseases. They are illustrated below:

i)  Droplet contact

ii)  Direct physical contact

iii)  Airborne Transmission

iv)  Sexual Transmission

v)  Fecal – oral Transmission

vi)  Vector Borne transmission

vii)  insect bite

 

3.  What is the meant by non-communicable disease? What are its risk factors? Explain with example in brief. 

Ans:- The disease which cannot transfer from one person to another is known as non-communicable disease. Cancer, Diabetes, Ulcer, etc. Are some example of non-communicable disease. There are two types of risk factor of non-communicable disease. They are given below:

i)  Modifiable risk factors:- this factor of non-communicable disease are changeable and depend upon the behavior. They are ways modifiable risk factors. use of tobacco products, alcoholism, Idleness, obesity, tension, malnutrition, etc. are some example of these factors.

ii)  Non-modifiable risk factors:- this character cannot be changed this factor are heredity, age and sex. Daily cause the disease like cancer, hypertension, eye cataract, etc.

 

4.  What is diarrhea? What are the symptoms of diarrhea? 

Ans:- The passing of loose stool more than four times in a day is called diarrhea. The following are the major symptoms of diarrhea:

i)  Frequent passing of loose stool

ii)  Abdominal pain

iii)  loss of appetite

iv)  Dehydration due to loss of fluid from the body

 

5.  What is the mode of transmission of Diarrhea? Write the preventive measures for diarrhea. (long Question) 

Ans:- Diarrhea is transmitted by contaminated food and water. Diarrhea is a preventive disease. We can apply for following preventive measures against diarrhea:

i)  Maintain the personal hygiene.

ii)  Use the safe and clean drinking water.

iii)  Wash the fruit and vegetable properly before eating.

iv)  Always cover the food stuff to prevent the blowing of flies and insects.

v)  Wash the hands properly with soap and water before eating.

vi)  Wash the hands properly with soap and water before doing work, playing and returning from the bathroom (toilet).

 

6.  What are the symptoms of dehydration called by diarrhea? 

Ans:- Dehydration is a continuous deficiency of water in the body. There is a high possibility of dehydration in diarrheal case. It may be seen in amoebic dysentery also. The following signs may be seen in dehydration called by diarrhea:

i)  Dryness of mouth

ii)  Feeling of frequent Thirst

iii)  Sunken Eyes

iv)  Wrinkled skin

v)  Depression seen at newborn baby

vi)  Less output of urine

 

7.  What is Dengue? Write any three symptoms of dengue. 

Ans:- Dengue is a communicable disease caused by female mosquito called Acedes Aegpti. It is also called dengue fever. The disease usually begins 4 to 6 days after infection and last for up to 10 days. The followings are the main symptom of dengue:

i)  Sudden high fever

ii)  Severe headache

iii)  Pain behind the eyes

iv)  Severe joint and muscle pain

v)  Fatigue and Nausea

vi)  Vomiting

 

8.  What are the preventive measures of dengue fever? 

Ans:- The following preventive measure can be applied against dengue fever:

i)  Use the net (supanet) while sleeping

ii)  Destroy the habitats of mosquitoes such as vase, flower, stand, empty can, water tank, etc. By cleaning

iii)  do not keep the vessels open

iv)  Maintain the good sanitation around home

v)  Use the mosquito net at door, window and ventilation of home and building

vi)  Use the cream while working, if need

 

9.  What is viral Influenza? What are the modes of transmission, symptoms and prevention of it?(long Question) 

Ans:- Viral influenza is an infection of respiratory tract caused by influenza viral A, B and C. It is commonly known as flu. The following are the

Modes of transmission of viral influenza:

i)  Droplet infections

ii)  Direct Contact: sitting and working together, hand shake etc.

iii)  Disposal of infected person: Urine, stool, spit, etc.

iv)  Materials used by infected person: fomites

 

Symptoms of viral Influenza:

i)  Fever or feeling feverish/chills

ii)  Cough

iii)  Sore throat

iv)  Runny or stuffy nose

v)  Muscle or body ache

vi)  Headache

vii)  Fatigue(tiredness)

 

Prevention of viral Influenza:

i)  Isolate the patient

ii)  Keep the patient at open and well-ventilated area

iii)  Sterilize the material used by patient before using

iv)  Dispose the materials excreted by patient safely

v)  Use the mask being out from the home

vi)  Consult the doctors and hospitals in the case of suspicion

 

10.  Mention the various causes of cancer. Write in detail. (long Question) 

Ans:- The causes or agents of cancer are known as carcinogen. They are classified into following groups:

i)  Physical carcinogens:- The sources of carcinogens are physical substances and equipments. Insoluble hard and soft solid particles, Ultra violet ray (UVR), X-ray, Radiation, Asbestos (silica fiber used as insulator), etc.

 

ii)  Chemical carcinogens:- These carcinogens arise from different products and compounds. Nicotine, Arsenic, lead, Nickel, Beryllium, Chromium and alcohol are some chemical carcinogens. They contain in tobacco and alcoholic products, food preservatives, paints, colors, etc.

 

iii)  Biological carcinogens:- Virus, Bacteria and parasites are main biological carcinogens.

a)  Virus: Human Papillion virus (HPV) causes Cervical cancer and Hepatitis B caused liver cancer

b)  Bacteria: Helicobacter pyroli causes stomach cancer

 

11.  What attempt can we do to prevent and control cancer diseases? (long Question) 

Ans:- We can adopt following measures to prevent and control cancer disease :

i)  Stay away from cigarette, Bindi, Tobacco, Raksi, Wine, Beer and Drug Addiction

ii)  Avoid the roasted and fried food stuffs

iii)  Avoid fungal foods

iv)  Consume the fresh and well cooked foods regularly

v)  Checkup  cervix and uterus regularly

vi)  Avoid the sex with multiple partners

vii)  Perform the light exercise regularly

viii)  Take the vaccine against the cervix cancer

ix)  In case of genetic cancer, consult the doctor or hospitals manually

 

12.  What are the causes of heart attack and stroke? 

Ans:- The heart attack and stroke are an emergency condition that is caused by blockage of blood vessels of heart due to blood clot or fat clog. There are various causes of heart attack and stroke. Some of them are listed below:

i)  The accumulation of fats in the heart and blood vessel

ii)  The consumption of oily and spicy foods, smoking and drinking habits

iii)  Malfunctioning of cardiac muscles and connective tissues

iv)  Low volume of blood

v)  Hypertension and diabetes

vi)  Family history of the disease

vii)  Regular mental stress and idle living style

 

13.  What are the symptoms of heart attack and stroke? 

Ans:- The symptoms of heart attack and brain stroke are almost similar. The following symptoms can be seen in heart attack:

i)  Severe chest pain toward to left arm

ii)  Breathing difficulty and lot of sweating

iii)  Heart stops to pump the blood

iv)  Blood vomiting due to inability of blood from lungs to heart

v)  Still vision and dizziness

vi)  Fainting at unpredictable time

 

14.  What are the preventive measures against heart attack and stroke? (long Question) 

Ans:- The following preventive Measures can be applied to control these diseases:

i)  Perform the regular exercise

ii)  Avoid the fatty, oily and spicy food stuffs

iii)  Avoid smoking and drinking habits

iv)  Be free from regular tension or stress

v)  Visit the doctors regularly in suspicious cases

vi)  Control the obesity

vii)  Consume the cholesterol free food stuffs

viii)  Always consume the fresh food, green vegetables and fruit

 

15.  What are the differences between communicable and Non-communicable disease? 

Ans:- There are various difference between communicable and Non-communicable disease. They are given below:

S. N

Communicable Disease

Non-communicable Disease

1.

These diseases can transfer from one person to another. These diseases are not transferable from person to person.

2.

Germs, microbes, fungi, parasites and worm are the main causative agents of communicable diseases. Heredity, age, internal disorder, nutritional deficiency and injury are the main risk factors for the Non-communicable disease.

3.

Contaminated air, water and food, insects and animals can transfer these diseases. Hereditary trairs can pass these diseases from generations to generations.

4.

Almost communicable disease are easily curable. Difficult to cure once it happens.

 

 

16.  What is dehydration? Distinguish between amoebic dysentery and bacillary dysentery. 

Ans:- Dehydration is a continuous deficiency of water in the body. There is high possibility of dehydration in diarrheal case. It may be seen in amoebic dysentery also.

The following are the difference between amoebic and bacillary dysentery:

S. N

Amoebic Dysentery

Bacillary Dysentery

1.

It is caused by an amoebic called Entamoeba histolytica. It is caused by shigella.

2.

It is a protozoan infection. It is bacterial infection.

3.

Its incubation period in 20-90 days. Its incubation period is 5-10 days.

4.

Mucus present in stool Blood and mucus present in stool so it is called bloody dysentery.

 

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