Unit:-6 Natural Resource and Biodiversity

Natural Resource and Biodiversity

A.  Very Short Answer Question 

1.  What is biodiversity? 

Ans:- The variety of life or living beings on Earth among and within different organism by gene, species and ecosystem is biodiversity.

2.  How many types of biodiversity are found? What are they? 

Ans:- There are three types of biodiversity found. They are:

i)  Genetic biodiversity

ii)  Ecosystem biodiversity

iii)  Species biodiversity

3.  Give any two examples of ecosystems? 

Ans:- Terrestrial and grassland ecosystem are two example of ecosystem.

4.  Which ecosystem is not found in Nepal? 

Ans:- Ocean ecosystem is not found in Nepal.

5.  How many flowering plants are recognized in Nepal? 

Ans:- 6,391 flowering plant are recognized in Nepal.

6.  Which rare plant reproduces by sporulation? 

Ans:- Yarsa or yarsagumba is reproduces by sporulation.

7.  Write any one adverse effect on biodiversity? 

Ans:- The one adverse effect on biodiversity is Laws of mobility.

9.  What are the species of Python found in Nepal? 

Ans:- Asiatic Rock Python and Burmese Python are the species of Python found in Nepal.

10.  Where is the main habitat of Royal Bengal Tiger? 

Ans:- Bardia National Park.

11.  Which species of animal are found more in Nepal? 

Ans:- Bird.

12.  What is the total number of national park of Nepal? 

Ans:- 10.

13.  What is the total protected area of Nepal? 

Ans:- 18.5 %

14.  Which area plant is used to make furniture? 

Ans:- Golden Michelia.

15.  What is Cordyceps? 

Ans:- Cordyceps is a rare plant that belongs to fungus group.

16.  What are any two protected animal of Nepal? 

Ans:- They are Red Panda and black buck.

17.  Which animal is used in the logo of WWF? 

Ans:- Panda.

18.  Write the full form of IUCN. 

Ans:- International Union of conservation of nature and natural resources

19.  What is conservation of biodiversity? 

Ans:- The activities that are adopted to conserve the various species of plant and animal from extinctions are known as conservation of biodiversity.

20.  Mention a significant causes of being Endanger or extinction of rare animals, birds and plants? 

Ans:- Loss of habitat.

21.  Which rare plant is used to treat cancer? 

Ans:- Himalayan Yew.

22.  Which rare plant is known as Himalayan Viagra? 

Ans:- Cordyces.

23.  Which organization prepares a Red List of plants and animals? 

Ans:- IUCN.

24.  What is extinct species? 

Ans:- The extinct species are those spaces which are not definitely located or seen since last 50 to 100 years. [IUCN]

25.  What is endangered species? 

Ans:- 2 species which are in the critical condition of extinction due to reduction in their number are called endangered species.

 

B.  Short and Long Question Answer 

1.  What are the various types of biodiversity? Explain each. (Long Question) 

Ans:- There are various types of biodiversity available in the nature. They are described below:

i)  Ecosystem Biodiversity:- there are different types of ecosystem developed in nature the variation in the landscape, soil, face, slope and steepness of land, altitude, water resources, climate, etc. Create the diversity among the vegetation and animals. Nepali divided into various ecological zones. Terai, Hill and Mountain are main ecological zones. There are distinct variation in plant and animals due to variation of ecosystems. There are altogether 118 types of ecosystem recognized in Nepal.

ii)  Genetic Biodiversity:- genetic biodiversity means the vast number of different species and Diversity within a species. Genetic biodiversity is caused by nucleotide, gene, chromosome and genome present in the organisms. This component differs among the organism. There are no similarities in their structure pattern and characteristics. This is the main reason to develop the genetic characteristics of different organism.

iii)  Species Biodiversity:- it refers the biodiversity within a some spaces. The variation in genetic characteristics of species causes the species diversity the extent of various species of Goat, cat, cow, Buffalo, dog, rose rhododendron, Paddy, etc. Some example of species biodiversity. The species diversity of flora and fauna is diverse according to the ecological zones and its ecosystem.

 

2.  What is the various importance of biodiversity? Write in detail. (Long Question)

Ans:- The biodiversity is a natural gift for us. The biodiversity has various importance for the country. The following points show the importance of biodiversity:

i)  Agricultural Product:- agricultural products are the main sources of food stuffs for human beings. The diversity of crops vegetable and fruits supply the various types of food stuffs. The production of various crops according to different seasons is also important.

ii)  Vegetative Products:- Various Vegetative product obtain from the plants. Medicine, wood, timber, fodder and industrial raw materials are produced from the plants. Green plants and forest are the great sources of Vegetative products. Human beings use at last 40,000 species of plants.

iii)  Animal Product:- Animals are the sources of various product ghee, milk, meat, leather, fur, wool, bone, and manure are the some animal product that can be used for the daily life and industrial purposes. Almost domestic animals and birds can be used to give the product.

iv)  Improvement in breed:- The various types of species can be used in improve the breeds. It is essential to conserve the biodiversity and to increase the productivity. It is highly used in agriculture, livestock, poultry, floriculture and other sectors. Hybridization Technology can be adopted for the improvement breathes. It can be used for the conservation of rare plants and animals.

v)  Soil conservation:- Plant have the great role for the soil conservation. The roots of plants can hold the soil particles very tightly and prevent the landslide and soil erosion. The leaves and stems of plants black the direct contact of rainfall to the soil. The plant and animal conserve the fertility power of soil by supplying the humus.

vi)  Water Conservation:- plant have the key role for the water conservation green forests are very important to regulate the rainfall on the earth. Planets absorb the excessive water amount and protect the wetland and other water resources.

vii)  Natural Beauty:- The beautiful flora and fauna create the wonderful words. The origin of Amazing destination at various parts of the world depends upon the flowers forest, wild lives, birds, insects, fishes and so on. The presence of biodiversity makes both land and water very beautiful.

viii)  Tourism Development:- The biodiversity makes the possibility of Tourism Development. The Tourism Development depends upon the abundance of flora and fauna. There are various tourism destination in Nepal which are promoted by diversity of flora and fauna. Sauraha, Chitwan National Park, Bardiya national park, Mai Pokhari, Shivapuri National Park, Dhorpatan, etc. are some tourism destination.

 

3.  What are the conservation measures of wired diversity? Discuss (Long Question) 

Ans:- The conservation measures to protect the biodiversity are discussed below:

i)  Knowledge and information on biodiversity:- The appropriate knowledge and information should be given to people about the biodiversity. They can understand and realize the importance and value of biodiversity.

ii)  Awareness towards the biodiversity:- The public should be developed about the importance and adverse effects on biodiversity.

iii)  Public participation in conservation:- Local people and organizations should be involved to formulate the plan, strategy, program, and policy of biodiversity conservation for their effective implementation.

iv)  Utilization of religious and cultural value for the conservation:- Religious and cultural value should be promoted for the biodiversity conservation. There are some specific flora and fauna having religious and cultural value. Peelal(holy fig tree), banyan, sami, wood-apple(Bel), basil, lotus, Neem, Tulasi, snake, crow, tiger, cow, elephant, lion, deer, owl, etc. are considered as holy things.

v)  Income with conservation:- Local people should be privileged with conservation of biodiversity. The income of national parks and protected areas should be invested for the local department. The local i habitats should get the opportunities for the income generation nearby tourist area of protected area.

vi)  Rational utilization:- Various types of flora and fauna should be consumed rationally. The reusable and recyclable flora and fauna can be used merely. People should not attempt to consume the protected and prohibited flora and fauna.

vii)  Implementation of Conservation law:- The laws formulated for the conservation of various types of plants, animals, birds and other must be implemented strongly. The government and stakeholders should encourage the local people for the implementation.

 

4.  What are the differences between Ex-situ and In-situ conservation? 

Ans:- The following are the difference between In-situ and Ex-situ conservation programs:

S. N. 

In-situ Conservation 

Ex-situ Conservation 

1.

The conservation of biodiversity at their own natural habitat and environment is called in-situ conservation. The conservation of biodiversity at manmade habitat and environment is called Ex-situ conservation.

2.

It is based on natural procedures. It is based on artificial (scientific) procedures.

3.

It covers the large area and expensive. It is possible with a small area with low cost.

4.

It is appropriate for mass purpose. It is appropriate for rare and endangered species.

5.

It is common method for conservation. It is species method for conservation.

 

5.  Explain the biodiversity of Terai region. 

Ans:- The following figures give the glimpse of biodiversity of Terai region:

i)  Plants:- Sal, sisau, satisal, khayar, chilaune, uttis, sindu, palas, asna, jamun, kyamun, peepal, banyan, Sami, bamboo and simal are major plants of this region.

ii)  Herbs:- Herbs like tulasi, bambari, barrow, harrow, champ, imli, sarpagandha(serpentine), aloevera, neem, asuro, amala, etc. are commonly found in this region.

iii)  Animals:- Animals like tiger, leopard, elephant, rhino, crocodile, wild Buffalo, deer, monkey, nilgai, gauri gai, bear, black buck, wild boar, porcupine, Python, cobra, etc. are found in this region.

iv)  Birds:- Peacock, eagle, vulture, dove, crane, storks, parrot, partridge, cuckoo, hawk, owl, hornbill, crow, duck, mianha, bat, sparrow, etc. are some common birds of this region.

 

6.  Explain the biodiversity of Hilly region. 

Ans:- The following figures give the glimpse of biodiversity of Hilly region:

i)  Plants:- The common plants of this region are pine, uttis, chilaune, dhoopi, peepal, banyan, Sami, rhododendron, deodar, dhudhilo,katus, anger, bamboo, etc.

ii)  Herbs:- Herbs like timur, jimbu, black pepper(Marich), bell, Chiraito, kurilo, bojho, red mushroom, chutro, aiselu, tejpat, etc. are found in hilly region.

iii)  Animals:- Animals like bear, deer, red panda, leopard, red deer, wolf, wild dog, squirrel, wild cat, rabbit, pangolin, chital, leopard cat, monkey, etc. are found in this region.

iv)  Birds:- Kalij, dove, crow, eagle, vulture, hawk, peacock, sparrow, pheasant, etc. are some common birds of this region.

 

7.  Discuss on biodiversity of Mountain region. 

Ans:- The following figure give the Glimpse of biodiversity of Mountain region:

i)  Plants:- plants like pine, bhojpatra, rhododendron, dhoopi, juniper, fir, maple, talispatra, gobre salla, etc. Are fou in this region.

ii)  Herbs:- Herbs like timur, jimbu, black pepper (Marich), spike nard (Jatamasi), wild garlic, Chiraito, panchaunle, padamcjal, etc. are found.

iii)  Animals:- Animals like musk deer, red panda, yak, wild yak, ghoral, snow leopard, black bear, poral bear, wild pig, etc are found in this region.

iv)  Birds:- lophophorus, dove, blood pheasant, Himalayan pheasant, chir pheasant, chilme, koklas, etc. are some common birds of this region.

 

8.  Explain in short any four advantages of biodiversity to the country. 

Ans:- Biodiversity is a natural gift for us. The biodiversity has various importances for the country. The following points show the importance of biodiversity.

i)  Agriculture product:- Agriculture products the main source of foodstuffs for human beings. The diversity of crops, vegetables and fruit supply the various types of food stuffs. The production of various crops according to different seasons is also important.

ii)  Vegetative Product:- Various vegetative product obtained from the plants. medicine, wood, Timber fodder and industrial raw material produced from the plant. Green plants and forests are the great sources of vegetative product. Human beings use at least 40,000 spaces a plant.

iii)  Animal Product:- animals are the source of various product. Ghee, milk, meat, leather, fur, wool, bone and manure are the some animal products that can be used for the daily life and industrial purposes. Almost domestic animals and birds can be used to gain the product.

iv)  Improvement in breed:- Various types of spaces can be used to improve the breeds. It is essential to conserve the biodiversity and to increase the productivity. It is highly used in agriculture, live stock, poultry, floriculture and other sectors. Hybridization Technology can be drop for the improvement breathe. It can be used for conservation for rare plant and animals.

 

9.  What are the methods of conservation for the rare plants? 

Ans:- The flowing measures should be followed to conserve the rear plants:

i)  The habitat of real plants should be protected and promoted.

ii)  The trade, business and export of real plants must be prohibited.

iii)  The overgrazing should be controlled by developing posture land.

iv)  The public awareness should be increased towards the rear plants.

v)  The utilization of rare plants and their products should be discouraged.

vi)  The local people and organizations should be involved in conservation activities.

vii)  The Conjuring shall or should be implanted effectively.

 

10.  What are the adverse effect on biodiversity of Nepal write with mitigating measures. (Long Question) 

Ans:- The biodiversity of Nepal adversely affected due to various activities. It is a great threat on Ecology. The following are the adverse effects seen on biodiversity of Nepal:

a)  Loss of habitat:- It is a great rate over biodiversity. The natural habitat of various animals, birds insects, fishes, plants, herbs and other are destroying. The deforestation, Overgrazing, Developmental activities are natural disaster are the main cause of loss of habitat.

b)  Loss of mobility:- The biodiversity has the Limited area for the living and mobility. Their habitats, moving area, corridor and grazing field are destroying due to deforestation, extensions of farm land developmental activities and urbanization. It is one of the reason to decline tiger, leopard, elephant, rhino deer and fishes.

c)  Limitation on expansion of vegetation:- the conjunction of vegetation and vegetative product is increasing. The land is overused for the various purposes. The farmland is expanded and unmanaged settlement is developed. These activities disturb the reproduction and development of herb, shrubs and trees. Overgrazing, destruction of wetland, watershed and water resources block the expansion of plants.

d)  Degradation in status:- the natural number of vegetation animals board insects fishes and other is declining in the nature due to unfavorable situations. They are struggling for the existence. so, they are being rare and endangered. Some species are extinct from nature.

 

11.  What are the methods of conservation for rare animals? 

Ans:- The following measures should be followed to conserve the real animals:

i)  The habitat of real animals should be protected and promoted.

ii)  Poaching of animals should be controlled.

iii)  The trade business and export of wild lives must be prohibited.

iv)  The public awareness should be increased towards the rear plants.

v)  The local people and Organization should be involved in conservation activities.

vi)  The conservation law should be implemented effectively.

 

12.  How does improvement in breed help in conservation of biodiversity? Write in short. 

Ans:- The improvement of breed is helpful for the conservation of biodiversity. This method enhances the fertility and productivity of species of flora and fauna. We can use this method for the conservation of rare and endangered animals and plants. It is helpful to prevent and control the epidemic disease of plants and animals. This technology mixes the possibility of both conservation and utilization. For example development of ostrich farms.

 

13.  What makes the hilly region of Nepal rich in biodiversity with respect to other regions? Mention any four reasons. 

Ans:- The hilly region of Nepal is rich in biodiversity with respect to other region. The possible reasons are given below.

a)  Wild conserve of land and ecology

b)  Moderate climate with various ecosystems

c)  Abundance of water resources

d)  Variation in geographical structure

 

14.  Nepal is rich in biodiversity. Justify the statement. (Long Question) 

Ans:- Nepal is a small country in the world. It covers only 0.01% area the world. But, there are unique geographical and ecological features within Limited territory of Nepal. These features are creating distinct ecosystems with various flora and fauna. There are altogether 118 ecosystems found in Nepal. These ecosystems make Nepal as hotspot of biodiversity in the world. There is highly abundance of flowering plants. This year 2.7% of the world. Various species of pteridophyte, Lichen, bryophyte, fungi and algae are recognized in high range. Pteridophyte and bryophyte cover 4.54% and 8.21% of world population.

The various phases of fauna are recognized in different ecological regions of Nepal. Mummal, bird, amphibian, reptile, fish, butterfly, moth, and spider are recognized with different species. The bird are highest in population. They share 8.9% of world status the mammals are 3.96% amphibians are 2.47%. This status of biodiversity justifies the above statement.

 

  1. Write short notes on:

Ans:-

a)  Clouded leopard:- It is founded in the dense forest at the bottom of mid Hill region. Neofelis Nebulosa is the scientific name of clouded leopard. It been long to cat family. It has the cloud like spots on it’s coat so it is named as clouded leopard the cloud layer part is good climber. Average body weight is 15 to 23 kg. Male are large then females. Deer, birds, porcupine and domestic animals are the source of food the clouded leopard.

b)  Red Panda:- it is called habre in Nepali. Its body is covered with reddish brown fur. The face and tail have the distinct white marks. It has a very long fluffy tail and small ears. The Whiskers are white and long. It is found at the altitude of 3500 meters. The coniferous forest, deciduous trees, jungle of bamboo and Reed are the habitat of red panda. Is body weight is about 3 to 6 kg.

c)  One-horned Rhinoceros:- one horn rhino is a large mammal found in the Siwalik and terai region of Nepal. Chitwan National Park is main habitat of one horned Rhino. Male is generally large in size than female. The body weight is about 200 to 4000 kg. This herbivores animal can run with a speed of 40 km per hour. Its hearing power is very excellent and it is a good swimmer. This animal is hunted for its horn, skin and hoof.

d)  Royal Bengal Tiger:- Tiger belongs to cat family and it it is one of the largest animal of this family. The scientific name of Tiger is Panthera Tigris. The average lifespan of Tiger is 15 years. The weight of a male is about 225 kg but females is 135 kg. Tiger Shroff like to live in tropical forest, brush, marsh land and tall grassland. They can give birth to 2 to 6 cubs. The skin is covered with yellow or light orange fur. The stripes are dark or black.

e)  Asiatic Elephant:- Element is the largest terrestrial creature of the earth. There are two species of elephant: Asian and African. African elephant are bigger than Asian. Elephants are found in forest of Terai mainly Hills to lower plain region. Their hearing, vision and olfactory power are well-developed. Asian elephant is about 5.5 to 6.5 m tall in height and its weight is about 3000 to 5000 kg. It gives the birth only one calf at a time.

f)  Giant Pied Hornbill:- It is the largest bird of the hornbill family. It is found in the forest of Terai region. It is protected at Chitawan National Park, Bardiya National Park, khoshitappu wildlife reserve and shuklaphanta wildlife reserve. It is white and black in colour. The wings are white banded and beak is huge topped. This omnivorous bird is in extinction stage.

 

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  1. Kritagya Sharma

    Thanks

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