Unit-5 Quality of Life

Quality of Life

 

A.  Very short question answer.

1.  Define quality of life. 

Ans:- The quality of life is the degree of satisfaction due to the fulfillment of basic and additional need. 

2.  What is low quality of life? 

Ans:- The low quality of life means the degree of dissatisfaction without fulfillment of basic need. 

3.  Write any one criteria (measure) of quality of life. 

Ans:- The one criteria of quality of life is physical quality of life index.

4.  State any one advantage of quality of life. 

Ans:- It is attainment of quality education. 

5.  In how many levels the Human Development Index is divided into? 

Ans:- It is divided into three as high, medium and low. 

6.  Write any two elements of quality of life. 

Ans:- The two elements of quality of life is Balance diet and Income.

7.  What are any two parameters (bases) to measure quality life? 

Ans:- The two parameters to measure quality life is HDI and PQLI.

8.  Which SAARC country has the highest human development index? 

Ans:- Sri Lanka (UNDP 2015) has the highest human development index.

9.  Write any one indicator (criteria) of Human Development Index (HDI). 

Ans:- The one indicator of Human Development Index (HDI) is Per capita income.

10.  Mention any one element of low quality of life that affects the economy of family. 

Ans:- The one element of low quality of life that affects the economy of family is Lack of employment.

11.  Which organization publishes HDI reports? 

Ans:- United Nations development program (UNDP) is publishes HDI reports.

12.  Write any one criteria to measure physical quantity of life index? 

Ans:- The one criteria to measure physical quantity of life index is Average literacy rate. 

 

B. Short and long question answer.

1.  What are the importance of quality of life. (Long Question) 

Ans:- The quality of life has been very significant role in our life. The following points show the importance of quality of life:

i)  Fulfillment of basic needs:- Food, shelter (housing) and cloth are basic needs of human beings. Health, security, education, sanitation and provision of safe drinking water are also basic need. The quality of life of and individual and his family being with fulfillment of these basic needs. 

ii)  Attainment of quality education:- the quality education brings change in the life and Lifestyle. It upgrades the living standard of people. The quality education brings the positive changes among people in the society. 

iii)  Management of Health Service facility and sanitation:- Population must have the access in the health service and facilities. These are the primary factor to overcome the prevalence of various disease and mortality rate. These services promote the health of people and extend the life span. 

iv)  Maternal and child care facilities:- It includes the proper care of pregnant women, mother and child. The family and community should provide the proper care for both mother and child without any bias. It maintains the mother and child health. The sound development of mother and child health helps to minimize the mortality rate and to limit the family size and population. 

v)  Employment opportunity and income generation:- Income generation has the crucial role to acquire the quality of life. People and their real family should be engaged in various occupations, vocation and professions to generate the income. The most have the job opportunities also. Income generation activities and job opportunity improve the financial status. 

vi)  Women empowerment:- Women empowerment changes the status of women in the family and Society. It is a process to show the power and rights to the women. This process helps to run the family smoothly. The woman can involve in the development and economic activities. They can contribute for family, social, mother and child welfare in their community.

 

2.  What are the elements of quality of life? Make a list and explain any four.

Ans:- There are various element of quality of life. These elements are listed and explained below:

i)  Nutritious Food 

ii)  Family Size 

iii)  Health 

iv)  Sanitation 

v)  Education 

vi)  Family Income 

vii)  Security

viii)  Saving

ix)   Housing 

x)  Social and Cultural Values 

(i)  Nutritious Food:- The provision of nutritious food in the family is very essential to maintain the quality of life. The provision of nutritious food is needed for the proper physical and mental growth and development it can prevent the various nutritional disorders i. e. Marasmus, Anemia, etc. 

(ii)  Family Size:- It is a key component to maintain the quality of life. The family size determines the expenditure and saving of the family. The level of saving affects the fulfillment of needs and demands of the family and members. 

(iii)  Health Service and Sanitation:- The health services and facilities support to assure the personal, family and community health. The family and its member can acquire the good health through the Utilization of health services and facilities available in the community. 

(iv)  Education:- The quality education cultivates the art of living among the people. The skills of living assist to adjust in the family, society and community. The quality education also brings the change among the people that are required for personal and social development. 

(v)  Family Income:- It is the determined of quality of life. The fulfillment of needs and demands of a person and his family depends up on the level of income and its sources. The family and family members should not compromise in their needs and Desires if the income level is good. 

 

3.  What are the bases to attain the quality of life? Explain each.  OR  What are the parameters to measure the quality of life? 

Ans:- There are three common bases to attend the quality of life they are given below: 

i)  Fulfillment of Basic Needs:- Food, shelter and cloth are there fundamental needs of human beings. Education, Health Service, Security, sanitation, safe drinking water and sex are also considered as basic needs. The fulfillment of these needs is a primary thing to attain the quality of life. It can assure both survival and satisfaction in our life. 

ii)  Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI):- Physical quality of life index was developed in 1979 AD to measure the quality of life. This composite indicator was constructed by Morris David Morris. It is based on development process of the society and country. 

Physical Quality of Life Index is based on the following parameters to measure achievement and basic needs:

a)  Life Expectancy at birth

b)  Under 5 mortality rate

c)  Average literacy rate

The skill of physical quality life index ranges 1 to 100 where 1 represents worth and 100 best or high.

iii)  Human Development Index (HDI):- This composite indicator was constructed in 1990 AD. Human Development Index measures the three different indicators:

a)  Life Expectancy at Birth 

b)  Average Literacy Rate 

c)  Per Capita Income 

UNDP publishes world human development report on the basis of HDI value.

 

4.  What efforts can be applied to improve the quality of life? Write any five efforts and describe them in brief. 

Ans:- The flowing are the force that can be applied to improve the quality of life.

i)  Provision of nutritious food:- Nutritious food should be managed for the sound, mental, intellectual and physical growth and development of everyone. In absence of balance died the body becomes very weak and loses the immunity power. 

ii)  Limiting the family size:- The family size is a crucial factors to maintain the quality of life. There is lot of chances to be happy and satisfied in a small family. The family can easily address the needs and demands of the family members. The limit income sources are possible to sustain the life happily. 

iii)  Managing quality education:- The quality education assists the adjust in the society and community. It eliminates the ignorance from the society it depend the mutual understanding, co-operation, coordination, peace, harmony, positive attitude and wishes in the families. The quality education proceeds the modernization and socialization process to create the civilized the family and Society. 

iv)  Maintenance of the health and sanitation:- The good health is the foundation of growth and development of the family and an individual. The unhealthy people cannot do work. The food and nutrition, quality education, personal hygiene, and health services and facilities contribute to maintain the good health.

Sanitation is also important to maintain the good health. It creates clean and neat surrounding for healthful living. The proper and regular sanitation provide the fresh and safe drinking water, air and residence.

v)  Saving:- The economic growth of individual and family depends up on the saving. The good savings changes the financial status of the family and an individual. The family and its members should be economy. 

 

5.  Define low quality of life and enlist three disadvantages of low quality of love. 

Ans:- The low quality of life is a condition of an individual and family that declines the living standard without fulfillment of needs and desired by physical, intellectual and mental growth and development. 

       The adverse effects disadvantages of low quality of life are mentioned below as:

i)  Problem to fulfill the basic needs:- It is very difficult to fulfill the basic need in the family at low quality of life. The family faces the problem to manage the food, housing, cloth, health, education and so on. There is always crisis in the family due to poor sources of income and property. 

ii)  Problem of quality education:- The provision of food is a huge problem at low quality of life. The Housing and clothing are prime issues for the family. So, people do not prior the education because survival is more significant. 

iii)  Problem of Health and sanitation:- The family and it member work just for living due to crisis and poverty. They engage in heavy manual works and your working hours become longer. The hard work makes them weak and creates various health hazards. 

iv)  High Maternal and infant mortality rate:- Malnutrition , poor care unhygienic, lifestyle, heavy labour etc. become very common problem in the family. Children and pregnant women are also involved in labour for earning. These entire situations enhance the morbidity and mortality rate in the community. 

 

6.  What type of rule does the quality of life play on social development? Mention the appropriate reason. (Long Question)

Ans:- The quality of life can play the role for the social development. The following points show the role of quality of life for the social development:

i)  Fulfillment of Basic Needs:- Food, shelter (housing) and clothes are basic needs of human beings. Health, security, education, sanitation and provision for safe drinking water are also basic needs. The quality of life of individual and his family being with fulfillment of these basic needs. 

ii)  Attainment of Quality Education:- the quality education brings change in the life and Lifestyle. It upgrades the living standard of the people. The quality education brings the positive changes among people in the society. 

iii)  Management of Health Services, facilities and sanitation:- People must have the access in the health services and facilities. These are the primary factors to overcome the prevalence of various disease and mortality rate. These services promote the health of the people and extend the life span. 

Sanitation is another factor for the helpful living eats ensures the provision of fresh air, water and surrounding to prevent the various health hazards.

iv)  Maternal and child care facilities:- It includes the proper care of pregnant women, mother and child. The family and community should provide the proper care for both mother and child without any bias. It maintains the mother and child health. 

v)  Employment opportunity and income generation:- Income generation has the current role to acquire the quality of life. People and their family should be engaged in various occupations, vocations and professions to generate the income. They must have the job opportunities also. Income generation activities and job opportunity improve the financial status. 

vi)  Women Empowerment:- Women empowerment changes the status of women in the family and Society. It is a process to assure the power and rights to the women. This process helps to run the family smoothly. The woman can involve in the development and economic activities. 

 

7.  Why should quality of life be analyzed relatively? Write any three reasons. 

Ans:- The quality of life should be analyzed relatively. It is a multidimensional phenomenon. The level of quality of life is differed among the societies and countries. The following are the possible reasons:

i)  Variety of personal feelings:- The quality of life is the degree of satisfaction of an individual and family. It is very difficult to measure the degree of satisfaction and feelings. It varies person to person. 

ii)  Difference in completion of basic needs:- The label of satisfaction or quality of life is commonly based on completion of basic needs and requirements. The completion of basic needs depends on various components. The personal and social development, cultural and religious background of people and family affect the quality of life. 

iii)  Variation in economic growth:- The economic growth of the country influence by quality of life. The sound national development and progress improves the living standard of the citizens. It can bring the changes in financial status by increasing per capita income. The trend of national development and economic growth of the countries is different. There is no similarity at quality of life as well people’s living standard of development and developing countries. 

 

8.  What are the indicators of happy life index? List and explain any five indicators. (Long Question) 

Ans:- There are various indicator of happy life index. They are given below:

i)  Small Family 

ii)  Quality Education 

iii)  Marriage at Proper Age 

iv)  First Conception at Appropriate Age 

v)  Birth Spacing 

vi)  Health and Sanitation 

vii)  Nutritious Food 

viii)  Gender Equality 

ix)  Responsibilities of Parents and Offspring 

x)  Saving 

(i)  Small Family:- Small family is happy family. It is very easy to fulfill the needs, demands and Desire of the family members. The fulfillment of needs and demands brings the lots of happiness, pleasure and satisfaction in the soul of family members. 

(ii)  Quality Education:- The quality education change the behavior and attitude of the person. It advances the various life skill required for the living in the family and Society. The quality education prepares a good responsible, Cooperative and social person. 

(iii)  Marriage at proper age:- It provides the good foundation for the happy and prosperous family life. The couple gets the malnutrition and complete the education for the future settlement. They can face the challenges easily. It keeps the sexual and reproductive hazards away. 

(iv)  Birth spacing:- It is a major to limit the number of children. The birth spacing is important for the proper care of child and mother. The proper care and development of children and mother bring the smile and happy in the family. 

(v)  Health and sanitation:- A healthy body and mind is the great asset of everyone. The healthy people can perform his all the duties and responsibilities in the family and professional life. It is a great achievement of the family for prosperous and satisfaction. 

The sanitation is essential to have a duty home. We can enjoy and maintain the good health  in clean neat  home and surrounding. 

(vi)  Saving:- An individual and his family should develop the saving habit. 

 

9.  Explain the Human Development Index (HDI). (Long Question) 

Ans:- This composite indicator was constructed in 1990 AD. It was developed by Pr. Mehabub U1 Hak(Pakistan) and Dr. Amartya Sen (India) for UNDP. HD is a new parameter to measure the quality of life social and economic development. HDI is more popular than PQLI. 

Human Development Index measures the three different indicators:

i)  Life Expectancy at birth

ii)  Average Literacy Rate 

iii)  Per Capita Income 

HDI uses of scale of 0 – 1. HDI value is divided into three categories. They are given below:

i)  High HDI       :0.80 and above 

ii)  Medium HDI  : 0.50 to 0.79

iii)  Low HDI        :Below 0.50

The HDI of development countries is high but the developing countries have low. 

UNDP publishes world human development report(WHDR) every year on the basis of HDI value. All the countries of the world are ranked on the basis of HDI in that report. The first World human development report was published in 1990. 

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