Unit-4 Demographic Situation of Nepal and Environment

Demographic Situation of Nepal and Environment

 

A.  Very short question answer.

1.  How much area is occupied by hilly region of Nepal? 

Ans:- Almost 68 % (Geographically) and 42 % (ecologically) is occupied by hilly region of Nepal.

2.  What percentage area of Nepal has been occupied by Terai region? 

Ans:- 17% (Geographically) and 23% (ecologically) is occupied by Terai region.

3.  Write a causes being high rate of population growth in Terai region. 

Ans:- The causes of being high rate of population growth in Terai region is early marriage.

4.  Write one measure to mitigate the adverse effect in the ecosystem of Terai region. 

Ans:- One measure to mitigate the adverse effect in the ecosystem of Terai region is forest conservation.

5.  What is the percentage of existing population in Terai region of Nepal? 

Ans:- 50.27% (2068) is the percentage of existing population in Terai region of Nepal.

6.  Which geographical region of Nepal is considered rich in biodiversity? 

Ans:- Hilly region  of Nepal is considered rich in biodiversity.

7.  Which aspect of ecosystem includes land topography and climate? 

Ans:- Physical aspect of ecosystem includes land topography and climate.

8.  Write any two popular religious site of Hilly region. 

Ans:- The popular religious sites of Hilly region are:

i)  Pashupatinath

ii)  Muktinath

9.  Write any one measure of conserve the precious herbs (plants) of the Mountain region. 

Ans:- The overgrazing should be controlled. 

10.  Write any two popular religious place of Himalayan (Mountain) region. 

Ans:- The two popular religious place of Himalayan region are:

i)  Muktinath

ii)  GosaiKunda 

11.  What are any two famous human settlement of mountain region? 

Ans:- Thakkhola and Namchebazaar are the two famous human settlement of mountain region.

 

B.  Short and long question answer.

1.  Write some reasons being high rate of population growth in Terai region. 

Ans:- Terai region of Nepal has high population growth rate. The reasons Dean high rate of population growth in Terai region is as follows:

i)  Early marriage

ii)  Polygamy 

iii)  High birth rate due to ignorance and illiteracy

iv)  Sexual discrimination

v)  Migration from Mountain and Hilly region

vi)  Migration of Indian people

 

2.  Discuss on Population distribution of Nepal by geographical regions.

Ans:- There is unequal distribution of population in different geographical region of Nepal. Terai is highly populated region of Nepal. The population of Mountain is lower than Terai and Hilly. According to census report of BS 2068, Mountain, Hilly and Terai regions represent 6.7%,43.0% and 50.3% of total population respectively. 

The migration from the hilly and mountain region to Terai is the main cause of high population in the Terai region. The migration og Indian people in the Terai region is another reason. 

 

3.  Compare the physical aspect of Hilly and Terai region of Nepal (long Question) 

Ans:- The following points compare the physical aspect of Hilly and Terai region of Nepal:

S.N.

Hilly region

Terai region

1.

It is the middle part of Nepal.

It is the southern part of Nepal. 

2.

It ranges from 610 to 4877 meter from sea level. 

It ranges 60 to 610 meter from the sea level. 

3.

It cover 42% area of Nepal ecologically. 

It covers 23% area of Nepal ecologically. 

4.

Valleys, tars, hills, Rocky land, plain fields, river basins and hanging valley are found in this region. 

The land is plain. 

5.

The Soil is Sandy, Rocky and infertile but fertile in valley. 

The soil is fertile and Alluvial is deposited. 

6.

The climate is moderate. 

The climate is hot during summer and cold in winter. 

7.

It is divided into three parts: Mahabharat mid hill and Chure or Siwalik. 

It is divided into three parts: Inner Bhabar and main Terai. 

 

4.  Compare the biological aspect of hilly and mountain region. 

Ans:- The following are the comparison between biological aspects of the hilly and mountain region. 

S.N.

Mountain Region

Hilly Region

1.

Plants:- Plants like pine, bhojpatra rhododendron, fir, maple, deodar, etc. are found. 

Plants:- Uttis chilaune, katus, peepal, banyan, bamboo, deodar, pine, dhupi, dudhilo, etc. are some common plants. 

2.

Herbs:- Herbs like timur, jimbu, black, pepper, chiraito, panchaunle, padamchal, jatamasi, yarshagumba, etc. Are found. 

Herbs:- Chiraito, tejpat, timur, bell, kurilo, bojho, jimmu, red mushroom, chutro, etc. are some common herbs of hilly region. 

3.

Birds:- Lophophorus, Himalayan pheasant, chir pheasant, chilme, koklas, skylark, snow, crow, snow pigeon, etc. Are found. 

Birds:- kalij, hawk, eagle, dove, crow, sparrow, pheasant, pea-cock, etc. are some birds found in this region. 

4.

Animals:- Snow leopard, red panda, snow bear, musk deer, yak wild yak, ghoral, etc, are found. 

Animals:- Leopard, bear, deer, monkey, wild cat, spotted deer, red deer, Grey wolf, wild dog, porcupine, pangolin, squirrel, etc. Are found in this region. 

 

5.  Compare the biological aspects of hilly region and Terai Region. 

Ans:- The following are the comparison between biological aspect of hilly and Terai regions. 

S.N

Terai Region

Hilly Region

1.

Plan: sal, sisau, saaj, satisal, chilaune, simal, khair, jamun, etc. are major plants found in Terai. 

Plants: Uttis chilaune, katus, peepal, banyan, bamboo, deodar, pine, dhupi, dudhilo, etc. are some common plants. 

2.

Herbs: Harrow, barro, amala, Amara, champ, imali, sarpagandha, neem, asuro, etc. are found. 

Herbs: Chiraito, tejpat, timur, bell, kurilo, bojho, jimmu, red mushroom, chutro, etc. are some common herbs of hilly region. 

3.

Birds: peacock, Carne, eagle, vulture, storks, hornbill, coal, hawk, parrot, mainah, etc. bird are found in this region. 

Birds: kalij, hawk, eagle, dove, crow, sparrow, pheasant, pea-cock, etc. are some birds found in this region. 

4.

Animals: Tiger, elephant, one horn rhino, leopard, deer, boar, wild Buffalo, rabbit, nilgai, gaurigai, monkey, crocodile, etc. are found in this region. 

Animals : Leopard, bear, deer, monkey, wild cat, spotted deer, red deer, Grey wolf, wild dog, porcupine, pangolin, squirrel, etc. Are found in this region. 

 

6.  Explain the socio-economic aspect of Terai Region. (Long Question) 

Ans:- The socio-economic expect of Terai region is very significant. The following are the socio-economic aspect of Terai region of Nepal:

i)  Major caste:- Brahamin, kshetri, Rajput, Tharu, Danuwar, Majhi, Darai, Rajbansi, satar, Dhimal, Jhangar, Yabad, Mushahar, Kusunda, Kushwaha, etc. 

ii)  Population:- The population of Terai covers 50.3% of total population of Nepal. The Population density of the region is 392 per Sq. Km. 

iii)  Major festivals:- Dashain, Tihar, Chhath, fagu, Purnima (Holi), Mega Sankranti, ID, etc. are main festivals. 

iv)  Main occupation:- Agriculture, animal husbandry, fish farming, bee keeping, poultry, business, Industries, Civil and Military Service and foreign employment are the main occupation of the Terian. 

v)  Major crops:- Paddy, wheat, maize, mustard, lentil, sugarcane, jute, tobacco, silk and cotton are major Agro-products. 

vi)  Main religions:- Hinduism, Buddhism, Jain, Islam and Christian are main religion in Terai. 

vii)  Main religious place:- Lumbini, Tribeni, braha kshetri, Janakpur Dham, Debghat, Gadhimai, Tilaurakot(Kapilbastu) etc. are the popular religious places of Terai region. 

 

7.  Explain the socio economic aspect of Mountain region(Long Question) 

Ans:- The socio economic aspect of the Mountain region is unique. The following are the socio economic aspect of Mountain region of Nepal:

i)  Major caste:- Sherpa, Lama, Bhotia, Thakali, Gurung, Rai, Magar, and Tamang live in this region. 

ii)  Population:- There is about 6.33% population of Nepal. The population density of this region is 35 per square kilometer. 

iii)  Major festivals:- Lhosar, BuddhaPurnima, Dashain, Tihar, etc. are main festivals. 

iv)  Main occupation:- Agriculture and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the people. Making and weaving of radi, pakhi, ghum, kamlo, carpet, etc. Occupation of the people. Tourism business such as trekking, cook, guide, porters, etc. Can also be seen in this region. 

v)  Major crops:- Potato buck-Wheat, barley, millet, uwa, apple, citrus, etc. Can measure agro product. 

vi)  Main religious place:- Hinduism and Buddhism are the main religion in mountain. 

vii)  House and costumes:- The house are which flat roof made up of slate. Dos and Windows are narrow. The down part of house is used to keep the cattle, middle part is to reside and the upper is to use store the food. They were very thick, warm, woolen, and furry clothes like Bakhu, Docha, and other. 

 

8.  Explain the socio economic aspect of hilly region(Long Question) 

Ans:- The socio economic aspect of hilly region is unique. The following are the socio economic aspect of hilly region of Nepal:

i)  Major caste:- Brahamin, kshetri, Rai, Limbu, kirant, Tamang, Magar, Newar, Chepang, etc. Are major cars and ethnic groups live in Hilly region. 

ii)  Population:- section of this reason covers about 43% of total population. The population density of this reason is worn it is 18 7 per square kilometer. 

iii)  Major festivals:- Dashain, Tihar, Lhosar, Chhath, fagu Purnima (Holi),Mega Sankranti, ID, etc. are main festivals. 

iv)  Main occupation:- Agriculture, animal husbandry, fish farming, poultry, trade, business, Industries, tourism, Civil and Military Service and foreign employment are the main occupations of the Hillian . 

v)  Major crops:- Paddy, wheat, barley, maize, millet, Potato, mustard and soybean are major Agro-products. 

vi)  Main Religions:- Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christian are the main religious in this region. 

vii)  Main religious places:- Pashupatinath, Bauddhnath, Changunarayan, Swayabhunath, Budhanilkanatha, Dakshinkali, Manakamana, etc. are popular religious places of Hilly region. 

 

9.  Write down the effect on the ecosystem of Mountain reason and their mitigating measures. (Long Question) 

Ans:- The major effects on the ecosystem of Mountain reason and their mitigation measures are given below:

i)  Deforestation:- People get the various forest products from the forest. The gat Timber, grass, firewood, vegetable and other from the forest. They cut down the trees and clear the forest.

ii)  Degradation of land:- The land is infertile. The climate condition is not good for farming. So, people use the chemical fertilizers, insecticide, pesticides and other chemical product to increase the fertility of the Soil. That degrades the structure of land or soil. 

iii)  Overgrazing:- It is causing the destruction of grazing field and forestry zone in the mountain region. Overgrazing destroys the precious herbs, shrubs and quality of soil. 

iv)  Pollution Resulted by Tourism:- It is a great challenge on the ecosystem of Mountain region. There are various hotel and restaurants for the promotion of tourism sector. Mountaineer, trekkers and hikers use the various logistic materials for example water bottle, tent, sleep bag, oxygen bag and cylinder, can, food staffs, medicines, heating materials, etc. For the climbing propose. 

v)  Degradation of water resources:- Hotel, restaurant, mountaineer, hikers and other  produce the various waste materials. These waste products are collected and disposed at water resources. That destroys the natural quality of water resources. 

Mitigating measures

i)  Forest must be protected and afforestation should be done. 

ii)  The cultivation Technology should be improved. 

iii)  Mountain the safe disposal system of wastes. 

iv)  The grazing field should be protected and expanded. 

v)  Scintillation campaign should be organized in the Himalayan region. 

 

10.  Write down the effect on the ecosystem of hilly region and their mitigating measures. 

Ans:- The major effect on the ecosystem of hilly region and their mitigation measures are given below. 

i)  Deforestation:- people depend upon the forest to obtain the various forestry products. They get timber, firewood, fodder, vegetable, fruits and other product. The conjunction rate is increasing and causing the Deforestation. People also clear the forest to get more land for farming and settlement. 

ii)  Degradation of land:- The land is degrading in hilly reason. There are various reason of Degradation. The farming method is unscientific. The farmers use the chemical fertilizer, insecticides and pesticides randomly. It decreases the productivity power of soil. 

iii)  Overgrazing:- It enhances the different ration and soil erosion. The loss of precious herbs and shrubs is another adverse effect to Overgrazing. 

iv)  Pollution:- It is a great Environmental threat. Population degrades the air, water and land. The unmanaged urbanization, industrialization, developmental activities and deforestation are the main causes of population. 

v)  Soil Erosion:- The flow of soil and soil particles from one place to another please is called soil erosion. It is a huge problem in the hilly region. Destroy the land and productivity of soil. We should adopt the terrace farming and planting the herbs and shrubs on the sloppy land and prevent soil erosion. 

 

11.  Write down the effect on the ecosystem of Terai Region and their mitigating measure. (Long Question) 

Ans:- The major effect on the ecosystem of Terai Region and their meeting getting measure are given below:

i)  Deforestation:- It is a very serious problem in the environmental conservation. People enter in the forest tree is known for various purposes and destroyed the forest. The Rapid population growth of this region is also promoting the Deforestation. 

ii)  Degradation of land:- The fertile soil of Terai region is a losing its productivity. The desertification, unscientific method of farming utilization of chemical fertilizers insecticides and pesticides, soil erosion and flood destruct the land. The degradation of land decreases the agro product. 

iii)  Overgrazing:- The farmer depend up on the forest, pasture land and grassland for the fodder of their livestock. It supports the destruction of soil, forest, plants, animals and their habitats. 

iv)  Pollution:- It degrade the natural quality and status of land, water and air. Pollution causes the various adverse effect. Deforestation, traffic means developmental activities industrialization and urbanization  are the main source of pollution. 

v)  Soil erosion:- It destroys the land and its fertility power. Loss of plant like herbs, shrubs, wind, heavy, rainfall, and farming at sloppy land cause the soil erosion. 

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