Unit-2 Demography, Population Change and Management

Demography, Population Change and Management

 

A. Very short Question Answer

1.  Who is the introducer of the term Demography?

Ans:- Achille Guillard is known as introducer of the term Demography. 

2.  Who is known as Father of Demography?

Ans:- John Grant is known as father of Demography. 

3.  Write any two demographic components.

Ans:- The two demographic components are birth and death. 

4.  What demographic process leads the birth and death?

Ans:- They are fertility and mortality respectively. 

5.  When does fecundity start among the woman?

Ans:- It starts with menarche among the woman.

6.  What is the period of fecundity?

Ans:- The fecundity period covers 15-49 years.

7.  When does fecundity end in a female body?

Ans:- It ends along with menopause of female.

8.  What is death? Define.

Ans:- The destruction of all the evidences of life in the human body is called death. 

9.  What is the average literacy rate of male and female in Nepal?

Ans:- The average literacy rate of male is 75.1 % and female is 57.4% respectively.

10.  What is the minimum calorie needed per person as outlined by the Government of Nepal?

Ans:-  The minimum calorie needed per person as outlined by the Government of Nepal is 2256 calorie per day.

11.  What is the appropriate age of marriage for male and female?

Ans:-  The appropriate age of marriage for male and female is 25 and 20 years respectively.

12.  Write any two direct methods of population management.

Aps:- They are delay marriage and birth spacing.

13.  What any two indirect methods of population management?

Ans:- They are providing population and health education to people. 

14.  Which day known as ovulation day?

Ans:- 14h day of menstruation is known as ovulation day.

15.  What is only one contraceptive that can prevent STD and HIV/ AIDS?

Ans:- Condom

16.  Give an example of Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUD)

Ans:- The example of Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUD) is Copper T.

17.  What stands for COC?

Ans:- COC: Combined Oral Contraceptive

18.  What is a hormonal method of contraception?

Ans:- Pills is a hormonal method of contraception. 

19.  What is the appropriate time to induce minilap and laproscopy?

Ans:- The appropriate time to induce minilap and laproscopy is within 8 days of menstruation or within 45 days of delivery

20.  Which demographic component is included to calculate the growth rate of population but not included to calculate the rate of natural increase?

Ans:- Net Migration Rate (NMR)

21.  What is the dependency ratio of Nepal according to population census 2011?

Ans:- 75.56%

22.  What is active population?

Ans:- The population of age group 15-49 that can generate the income for living is called independent or active population

23.  What is demography?

Ans:- The scientific study of human population is called demography

24.  What is fecundity?

Ans:- It is a power of female to give a live birth. 

25.  What is crude birth rate? Define.

Ans:- It is defined as the total number of live births in a year per 1000 mid-year population of a certain area at a certain time. 

26.  What is general fertility rate (GFR)?

Ans:- General fertility rate (GFR) is defined as the total number of live births in a year per 1000 mid -year population of women between 15-49 years of age.

27.  What is the meaning of dependency ratio? Define.

Ans:- The ratio between dependent and active population of a particular place at a specific time per 100 is called dependency ratio.

 

B. Short and Long Question Answer

1.  What are the demographic components and process? Explain.

Ans:- The components that determine the size, composition and change of population of any place or country are known as demographic components. There are three different demographic components. They are birth, death and migration. The process that precedes the demographic components is known as demographic process. There are three different demographic processes. They are fertility, morality and migration. They precede birth, death and migration respectively.

 

2.  What is fertility? State the various measures of fertility.

Ans:- Fertility is a process to measure the birth and its trend. It measures the total number of live birth or children given by a Woman during her life span. The period of 15-49 years of a woman is considered as a fertile period. And the woman possessing the fertility power is known as fertile woman. There are various measures of fertility. Some measures are given below:

i)  Crude Birth Rate (CBR) 

ii)  General Fertility Rate (GFR) 

iii)  Age-Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR) 

iv)  Total Fertility Rate (TFR) 

 

3.  What are the differences between Crude birth rate and general fertility rate? 

Ans:- The Following are the differences between Crude birth rate (CBR) and general fertility rate (PGR) :

S.N

Crude Birth Rate (CBR) 

General Fertility Rate (GFR) 

1.

It is defined as the total number of live birth in a year per 1000 mid-year population of a certain area at a c time. 

It is defined as the total number of live birth in a year per 1000 mid-year population of women between 15-49 years of age. 

2.

It is calculated by using the following formula : CBR=B/P*1000

It is calculated by using the following formula :

GFR= B/P(15-49)*1000

3.

It is unscientific method to measure fertility. 

It is comparative scientific method. 

4.

Its eligibility is very poor.

It’s eligibility is high.

5.

It is very simple and easy method.

It is improved method.

 

4.  What are the adverse effects of rapid population growth on Environment? Explain. (long Question) 

Ans:- There are various adverse effects of rapid population growth on various sector of environment. These are mentioned below:

i)  Effect on forest and vegetation:- the Direct impact of rapid population growth can be observed on forest and vegetation. The deforestation is a main problem caused by population growth. Growing population demand more cultivable land, places for shelter and materials for the fuel and contraction.

ii)  Effect on aquatic and Terrestrial Animals:- forest land and water resources are being over exploited due to Rapid population growth. It causes the destruction of habitat, food source and population. As a result, aquatic and terrestrial animals are being rare and endangered. 

iii)  Effect on Air:- Air population is great threat to the nature. Deforestation, poor sanitation, urbanization, vehicles industrialization are the main causes of air pollution. 

iv)  Effect on water:- There are adverse effects on water and water resources. Water is vital component and used for various purpose. The optimum utilization of water resources degrades the quality of water. Water resources are also used as dumping site and Drainage at rural, urban and internalization. 

v)  Effect on land:- land gives the high pressure of population growth. Land is highly used for cultivation and settlement. It degrades the quality and productivity the soil. 

vi)  Effects on minerals:- minerals such as iron, steel, copper, silver, limestone, etc. D are used as raw material for the industries and development activities. 

 

5.  Explain the consequence of rapid population growth on social and economic sector. (long Question) 

Ans:- There are great consequence of rapid population growth on social and economic sector. They are mentioned as:

i)  Effect on health service and Facilities:- Population growth makes the health service and facilities Limited. Health Institutions become crowded. 

ii)  Effect on education:- Additional population increases the flow of children to the school and Educational Institutes. The class size becomes very large. The classroom, library, laboratory, bathrooms and playground become crowded. 

iii)  Effect on cultural and religious heritage:- The cultural and religious Heritage are losing their beauty and encroached by unplanned settlement housing and development work. Their periphery is also using for the income generations. 

iv)  Effect on employment:- Additional populations create the unemployment problem in the society and country. The rate of economic growth is always lower than rate of population growth. So, it is difficult to create job opportunities to the additional population. 

v)  Effect on drinking water:- The supplement of drinking water in the settlement is also affected by population growth. The quality of drinking water become very poor and the water resources are shrinking due to the heavy deforestation and environmental balance. 

vi)  Effect on food supplement:- additional population use the cultivable and fertile land for the settlement. Its direct impact can be seen in the food production and supplement. It declines the food supply per person and family. 

vii)  Effect on shelter:- The family size is expanded and house become crowded and congested. It creates the health problem among the family members. It increases the sanitation problem and promotes the community health hazards. 

 

6.  Why is it difficult to get employment due to high population growth rate? Explain.

Ans:- There is just opposite relation between employment and population growth rate. The rate of economic development is always low then population growth rate. It is not easy to expand the industries business and trade. The mobilization of natural and human resources tick the long time. So, creating the job opportunity for the people is challenging work. 

People do not get the treatment for their jobs quickly. The government, non-government and private sector have the limitation to create the employment opportunity in the country. This fact is responsible for the unemployment. 

The high population growth rate increases the poverty and deteriorates the saving capacity. The economic status of people and family become low. People cannot start in occupation and vocation through they all efforts and they become jobless. 

 

7.  What is population management? State and explain the various measures to control our manage the population. (long Question)

Ans:-  Population management is a process by which population is managed according to the available resources. There are various measures to control and manage the population. Some of them are mentioned below:

i)  Birth Spacing:- Birth spacing is a gap between the birth of a child and another child. It helps to get the limited number of children in the family. There must be 4 to 5 year birth spacing between two children. 

ii)  Appropriate age of marriage:- marriage should be done at appropriate age. It helps to control the child and early marriage as well births. The appropriate age of marriage for female is 20 years and for male 25 years. 

iii)  Status and education of women:- the status and education background of women affect the marriage, pregnancy, birth, family planning and child caring. The status and education of Women must be improved and they should get the involvement in decision making sexual and reproductive issues, family planning and social issues.

iv)  Gender equality:- gender equality develops the equal status of men and women in the family at society. It is very beneficial to control and reduce the sexual discrimination, violence, unwanted marriage and pregnancy. 

v)  Birth control method:- There are various types of birth control method to control the birth. There are separate methods for male and female. These methods assist to make small and ideal family. Calendar method, pills method, condom method etc. are the birth control method. 

 

8.  What are the natural contraceptive devices? List out and explain each. (long Question) 

Ans:- There are various types of natural contraceptive device for the male and female. They are based on physical and biological process of the human body. 

i)  Calendar method:- It is also known as rhythm method. It is based on the menstrual cycle of the female body in this method sexual in intercourse should be done at safe period only. There is no chance of pregnancy because there is no production of ovum in safe period. But, the menstruation cycle must be regular in every 28 days to adopt the method. 

ii)  Cervical testing method:- it is determination of safe period by examining the Cervical mucus. A little bit of mucus is taken out from the vegina in a finger tip and tested by sticking with another finger. If it gets sticky and stretches out another finger, the period is considered as unsafe. This method is not reliable. 

iii)  Withdrawal method:- it is only outer ejaculation of seminal fluid from the penis. The penis is taken out from the vegina during the sexual intercourse before the ejaculation. Withdrawal method prevents the entering of spring into the uterus. 

iv)  Lactation Amenorrhea Method:- Prolong and explain excessive Lactation extends the infertility after the delivery. The method hampers the hormonal production for the menstruation and ovum release.

 

9.  What is IUD (Intra-uterine Device)? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using copper T? (long Question) 

Ans:- IUD is a device used by inserting into the uterus with the help of special instrument by a trained person. It is very reliable device. It is available in the form of loop, spiral, copper T. 

Copper T is the most common device for contraception. A copper wire is wrapped over the T-shaped plastic rod. There are both advantages and disadvantages of using copper T:

Advantage:

i)  It does not disturb the intercourse. 

ii)  It does not hamper the sexual satisfaction.

iii)  It can work for 10 years. 

iv)  It is removable if there is a desire to have a child. 

v)  It is 90 to 95% effective. 

Disadvantages:

i)  It may cause the pain and discomfort at the lower abdomen. 

ii)  It main cause the irregularity in the menstrual cycle at the initial stage. 

iii)  It may come out, if not used properly. 

 

10.  Write a short note on:

Ans:-

i)  Pills:- These are tablets used by women as temporary method. Nilocon white and Sunaulo Gulab are some examples of use available in Nepal. It has a success rate of 99%, if it is used regularly. It helps to regulate the menstruation. 

ii)  Condom:- condom is a rubber tube that is used over the penis. It is very soft and thin. It prevents the entering of sperm into the uterus. It is very easy to use and reliable to block the contraception. It can save us from STD and HIV/ AIDS. 

iii)  Emergency contraceptive:- This is available for emergency propose only. The training of condom while using sleeping of copper T, missing of pills, Depo-Provera injection to use and rape cases are some emergency condition to use of ECON or emergency birth control device. 

 

11.  What are the various types of permanent method of contraception? (long Question) 

Ans:- There are separate permanent method of contraception in male and female. They are vasectomy, mini lap and laprocoscopy. 

i)  Vasectomy:- It is the permanent method of male. It is adopted by a min surgery. The vas-deferens Scott and tide app the both in with the help of metallic or plastic fiber to block the secretion of sperm. It is permanent method even through condom should be used for some m months after the surgery. 

ii)  Minilap:- Minilap is a permanent method for women. It is used to sterilize the woman. The fallopian tube is cut and is tied at the both end with help of plastic or metallic fiber. A Minor surgery should be done to adopt minilap. The surgery should be done after 45 days of delivery or after 8 days of Mensuration. 

iii)  Laparoscopy:- Laparoscopy is a permanent method for women. It is used to sterilize the woman. The fallopian tube tied at the both end with help of plastic or metallic fiber. A Minor surgery should be done to Adobe Laparoscopy. The Surgery should be done after 30 to 45 days of delivery or after 8 days of Mensuration. 

 

12.  Write about Depo-Provera injection with advantage and disadvantage. 

Ans:- Depo-Provera is an injection that can be used with a interval of every three months. It is a temporary method of contraception design for female. The injection should be taken after 7 days of Mensuration. It prevents the ovum production. It is available in the form of Sangini. There are both advantage and disadvantage of Depo-Provera. 

Advantages:

i)  It has more than 99.7% is effectiveness. 

ii)  Single dose can work for 3 months. 

iii)  It is easily available. 

iv)  The presence of blood pressure and diabetic can be used. 

Disadvantages:

i)  It may cause the irregular menstruation. 

ii)  It may causes the abdominal pain headache and weight gain. 

 

13.  Different between population growth rate and rate of natural increase of population. 

Ans:- The following are the difference between rate of nature increases and population growth rate:

S.N. 

Rate of Natural Increase

Population Growth Rate

1.

It is a difference between birth and death rate. 

It is Summation of rate of natural increases and net migration rate. 

2.

NMR is not included for the calculator of RNI. 

NMR is included to calculate PGR. 

3.

It indicates only birth and death. 

It indicates all the demographic components birth, death and migration. 

4.

It estimates the fertility of a country

It is the population size of country. 

5.

It is calculated by using the following formula:

It is calculated by using the following formula:

 

14.  Difference between in-migration rate and out- migration rate :

Ans:- The following are the difference between in-migration and out-migration rate:

S.N. 

In-migration Rate (IMR)

Out-migration Rate (OMR)

1.

It measures the in-migration people in the particular place or country. 

It measure the out-migrate people from particular place or country. 

2.

It is responsible to decrease the population. 

It is responsible to increase the population. 

3.

It is considered with in-migration problem. 

It is considered with emigration problem. 

4.

It is calculated by using the following formula:

It is calculated by using the following formula:

 

15.  What are the difference between sex ratio and dependency ratio? 

Ans:- The following are the difference between dependency and sex ratio:

S.N.

Dependency Ratio

Sex Ratio

1.

The ratio between dependent and active population of a particular place at a specific time per hundred is called dependency ratio. 

The number of male population per hundred females is called sex ratio. 

2.

It is based on age and age groups. 

It is based on sexual background. 

3.

It is important in economic view. 

It is import in social view. 

4.

It is calculated by using the following formula:

 

 

16.  Write the difference between:

(a)  Fertility and fecundity:

Ans:- The following are the difference between fertility and fecundity:

S.N.

Fertility

Fecundity

1.

It is a process of child birth. 

Eight of physical and biological capacity to give the live birth. 

2.

It bins with sexual contact and conception. 

8 things along which Menarche. 

3.

It is processed by women only. 

Both men and women possess it. 

4.

All women can be fertile. 

All women and men cannot be fecund. 

 

(b)  Gender Equality and Equity:

Ans:- The difference between equality and equity are as follows:

S.N.

Equality

Equity

1.

Equality is unequal behavior towards both male and female. 

It is an excess of male and female is opportunities, rights and services. 

2.

It is a provisional activity that is based on principle. 

It is a practical activity that is based on behavior. 

3.

It minimizes the sexual discrimination in the family and Society. 

It empowers the both men and female behaviorally. 

4.

It ensure the impartiality

It implicate the impartiality. 

 

(c)  Natural contraceptive and artificial contraceptive method:

Ans:- The difference between natural and artificial contraceptive method are as follows:

S.N.

Natural Contraceptive

Artificial Contraceptive

1.

This device depends of our physical and biological process of human body. 

This device does not depend off on biological and physical process of human body. 

2.

This device does not expose in side effect. 

This device may expose the side effect after use. 

3.

These devices are simple and easy to adopt. 

These devices are not so inconvenient to adopt. 

4.

This device cannot be prevent HIV/ AIDS and STDs. 

There are some artificial device which can work against HIV /AIDS and STDs

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